RSF Project No. 21-19-00412
The project is an interdisciplinary one, researches will be fulfilled in the connection of natural sciences (engineering sciences, solid state physics) and humanities (art history, history of technics and technologies).
Increasing quality and reliability of restoration works and art history expertise (attribution) of art ceramics items by application modern surface analysis methods of minimal destroying effect.
For these purposes it is necessary to solve the important problems of the electron and X-ray spectroscopy valuable for successful fulfillment the whole project:
The assigned tasks will be solved in the integrated way using literature and archival data together with experimental researches by the set of mutually complementary and mutually verifying analytical methods starting from standard ones: elemental X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and X-ray diffraction phase analysis (XRD). The experimental data statistical processing including Fourier analysis and fractal analysis of images will play an important role in the project. The computer expert system for expertise (attribution) ceramic art items by the complex analysis data will be built on another method for non-linear dependences determination: the neural networks method.
Presently methods of art historical expertise are based on application of limited range of optical techniques and simple spectral analysis methods. Expert conclusions are based largely on the opinion of an expert. The use of objective physical methods in expertise is quite limited, and methods involved, those of X-ray fluorescent analysis, X-ray structural analysis, optical microscopy including polarizing one have fundamental restrictions tied with low sensitivity as well as low spatial and depth resolution. At the same time, newest methods of non-destructive or low-invasive surface examinations were developed in last decades in the field of physical material science. They have unique sensitivity to elemental, phase, microstructural state of diverse materials with very high spatial and depth resolution about several nanometers. The most significant information allowing to describe a material in many aspects and with maximum degree of reliability is based on complex application of multiple methods of surface analysis.
A number of research teams in the world have expanded application of surface analysis methods to miscellaneous historical artifacts examinations. There are few works on the studies of historical porcelain by surface analysis methods for detecting some features of its composition and structure, for example, chemical composition of the bulk or combination of pigments in colors. Practice of complex application of surface analysis methods in art historical expertise is not described in the literature, the fact suggesting high scientific novelty of the project.
Schemes of complex application of a series of newest methods of physical material science for objective characterization and authentication of ceramic art items are justified and elaborated in the project. The assigned tasks will be solved in the integrated way using literature and archival data together with experimental researches by the set of mutually complementary and mutually verifying analytical methods starting from standard ones: elemental X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and X-ray diffraction phase analysis (XRD).
To realize the tasks of the project a set of modern non-destructive or low-invasive surface analysis methods will be applied: the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Electron microprobe (EMP), x-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Auger spectroscopy (AES) including Auger microscopy (AEM) and extended energy-loss fine structure spectroscopy (EELFS), secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS) in the quasi-static mode and TOF-SIMS. The experimental data statistical processing including Fourier analysis and fractal analysis of images will play an important role in the project. The computer expert system for expertise (attribution) ceramic art items by the complex analysis data will be built on another method for non-linear dependences determination: the neural networks method.
Elaboration of research methods will be fulfilled on samples of modern ceramics and on raw materials for their fabrication.
The main researches are to be performed on attributed fragments of artistic ceramic items.
Results of the present interdisciplinary project will make a substantial contribution to several science branches (engineering science, solid state physics, materials science of ceramic materials, arts conservation and art history, history of engineering) and consequently to development of the science at whole.
Characteristic micro- and nanostructural features of ceramics, distribution of phase particles including shape and size of particles and their dispersion, interrelations of main chemical elements and light admixtures, degree of their oxidation in different layers (glaze, paints, and ceramic body) will be determined.
Knowledge bases on microstructure and chemical composition of layers including isotopic one typical for diverse dated of manufacture and artistic ceramics manufacturers will be formed.
The set of methods for artistic ceramics art historical expertise optimal in terms of purchasing and operation costs will be determined, technical requirements to the equipment will be formulated.
On the basis of the experimental results obtained in the project there will be formulated the specification for expert computer system of ceramic art items identification on physical material science data.
Methods developed in the project will prove reliable data in cases when traditional research methods do not work or just destructive methods are available, in particular, with the purpose of:
Conservation and restoration of heritage objects have an unbiased assess as one of big challenges facing humanity. In this way the project is aimed on solution of tasks in the Strategic direction N7 “Ability to efficient response of Russian society on big challenges accounting interaction of human and nature, human and technologies and social institutions on the current stage of global development including application of humanitarian and social sciences methods”. Realization of the project will increase significantly the quality of restoration efforts by using materials most close by composition and microstructure to original ones and looking ahead the relevance of art historical expertise of pieces of artistic ceramics including porcelain. Therefore the probability of revealing fakes is to increase as well as authentic items’ smuggling to be suppressed. Thereby the project results will contribute significantly to realization of Strategic direction N5 "Counteraction to technogenic, biogenous, sociocultural threats, terrorism and ideological extremism and also cyberthreats and other sources of danger to society, economy and state" and Priority direction 1 "Safety and counteraction to terrorism".
In terms of elaboration new art historical expertise approaches on the base of modern physical methods of composition and structure of materials studies as well as accumulation an array of expert characteristics and targeting onto future development of artificial intelligence-based computer expert system for identification of artistic ceramics items using physical investigations results the project corresponds to the strategic direction N1 "Transition to the advanced digital, intellectual production technologies, robotic systems, new materials and ways of designing, creation of systems of processing of large volumes of data, machine learning and artificial intelligence".
Surface analysis methods using in the project correspond to the Crytical technology 11 “Technologies for nanomaterials and nanodevices diagnostics”.
Solution of tasks formulated will allow the Russian art science and restoration school to strengthen its leading positions in the world.